Governments should spend money on railways rather than roads.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?
This essay question is in Cambridge IELTS 11 Test 1 Writing Task 2.
It is argued that governments should invest money in railways instead of roads. I completely agree with this point of view because railways are environmentally friendly and also an important economic driver.
Railways help to protect the environment. Improving roads amounts to encouraging the public to use cars. The more cars on the road, the more carbon emissions. However, if governments spend money constructing railways, be they subways or tram lines, more people would opt for public transportation instead of private cars when traveling. Take Wuhan, China for example. Over the past 5 years, the government has built 10 subway lines that connect the entire city, making it easy for people to get around. As a result, city road traffic has gone down significantly. This is good for the environment since public transportation has much lower per capita carbon emissions than private vehicles.
In addition, railway networks help to drive economies forward. Different cities have different strengths. With these networks, a country can become more connected, and thus businesses in different cities can collaborate more easily. For example, in China, all major cities are linked by high-speed rail. This allows various hubs, such as the tech hub Shenzhen, manufacturing hub Wuhan, and e-commerce hub Guangzhou, to work together to bring the best products out to the market fast.
In conclusion, government spending should be on railways rather than roads. For one thing, improving railways encourages the use of public transportation and therefore benefits the environment. For another, railways play a key role in economic growth.
How to Understand “Railways” and “Roads”
The question is quite general. “Railways” might include subways, high-speed rail networks, tram lines, international trains, etc. “Roads” might include streets, highways, country roads, etc. The question asks about all types of railways and all types of roads. That is to say, you shouldn’t talk about only one type of railway in your body paragraphs. But you can definitely talk about only one type, such as subways or tram lines, in your examples.