The Diagram Below Shows How Electricity Is Generated in a Hydroelectric Power Station

The diagram below shows how electricity is generated in a hydroelectric power station.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.

This essay question is from Cambridge IELTS 14 Test 3 Writing Task 1.

Hydroelectric power station

the diagram below shows how electricity is generated in a hydroelectric power station

Sample Essay

The diagram displays how a hydroelectric power plant produces electricity.

Overall, the production of hydroelectricity is cyclical and consists of four main parts: storing water high, letting water flow downhill to generate electricity, storing water low, and pumping water back uphill for reuse.

First of all, the dam stores river water behind it in the upper reservoir that has an intake at the bottom. During the day, the intake is open, allowing water to flow through. As the water moves downhill into the lower reservoir, it passes through the turbines and turns their blades to generate mechanical energy. The spinning turbines then drive the generator to convert the mechanical power into electricity, which is subsequently delivered to the national grid through power lines.

During the night when demand for electricity is low, the turbines act as pumps that pump water kept in the lower reservoir back to the upper reservoir for reuse.

152 Words

How to Write the Overview

The process is cyclical and doesn’t end so you can’t say something like “end with”. Besides, it is not enough to only summarize the first and last steps. Read the examiner’s comment on page 133 of Cambridge IELTS 16.

✖️Overall, the production of hydroelectricity is a cyclical process and consists of five stages, starting with storing water in the high-level reservoir and ending with pumping water back uphill for reuse.

✔️Overall, the production of hydroelectricity is cyclical and consists of four main parts: storing water high, letting water flow downhill to generate electricity, storing water low, and pumping water back uphill for reuse.

How to Vary Your Language

Don’t worry about repeating “pump”. There is nothing at all wrong or unusual about saying that pumps pump. In fact, it shows the examiner that you can use “pump” correctly as both a noun and a verb. The three versions below are all good.

During the night, the turbines act as pumps that pump water stored in the lower reservoir back to the upper reservoir for reuse. 👍👍👍

During the night, the turbines serve to pump water stored in the lower reservoir back to the upper reservoir for reuse. 👍👍👍

During the night, the turbines act as pumps that move water stored in the lower reservoir back to the upper reservoir for reuse. 👍👍👍

9 CommentsLeave A Comment

  1. The diagram provided illustrates the process of electricity generated in a hydroelectic power company. There are numerous components involved to make the power generation possible.

    A river allowed to flow through the high level reservoir which is covered by the “Dam”. A tunnel functionality is provided for the easy flow of water coming through the big tank. It’s one edge is connected with the lake while the other one is joined to the “Dam” end.

    In order to produce electricity, it is important to connect the water flow with reversible turbines. These reversible motors consists of a generator which converts the water into energy. As soon as, the water is moving through the shaft reaches the turbine, a pressure is created on it due to which the generator starts moving and the energy accumlated due to it is transferred through the powerlines to the national grid. Whereas, the remaining water gets out through “Low level reservoir”. This whole process is followed during the day. In the night, these reversible pumps, forced the water back to the high level reservior which is closed during the night.

    Hence, this is procedure of producing power electricity through through the water movement.

  2. This figure displays how electricity production is occured from hydroelectiric power plant.
    Overall, production of electricity from hydroelectiric power station is a cylical process and this process mainly divided 4 different stage; storing a water, that came from river, in high-level reservoir, to maintain water flowing uphill to downhill direction to turn the turbines, which this turning movement gain electricty, storing water to the downhill reservoir, to pump water downhill to uphill direction for reusing.
    During the daylight, water that came from river is stored uphill reservoir and intake part are open to maintain water moves high level to low level reservoir. This movement, hep to turn turbines to produce mechanical energy. After mechanical energy was produced by turbines, that energy turned by generator to the electricity which it is delivered to national grid with power lines.
    During the night, however, intake are closed and downhill reservoir start to pump water to uphill resorvoir for reusing purpose.

  3. The diagram illustrates how a hydroelectric power plant produces electricity.

    Overall, the cyclic production of electricity from the energy of water consists of four main stages: storing water high, letting flow downhill to generate power, storing water low, and pumping water back uphill for reuse.
    First of all, the water coming from a river is stored behind a dam in a high-level reservoir. The intake, which is located at the bottom of the reservoir, is open during the day, which allows water to flow downhill toward the low-level reservoir. This water passes through turbines and turns their blades to generate mechanical energy. The spinning turbines then drive a generator to convert the mechanical power to electricity, which is subsequently delivered to the national grid through power lines.
    On the other hand, during the night, the function of the turbines is reversed; the turbines act as a pump. They pumped water kept in the low-level reservoir to the high-level reservoir

  4. “During the night when demand for electricity is low”

    Can we really write this? I mean this isn’t provided in the diagram.

    1. Hi, thanks for your question.

      Yes. If you’re 100% sure that something is the case, then you can write about it even if it’s not shown in the diagram. But if you’re not sure, then you definitely shouldn’t write it.

      For example, in the last stage of this diagram, we shouldn’t say that the cups are labeled and sealed and READY FOR SALE because maybe the following step is to package the finished cups in cardboard boxes for shipping.

      Hope this helps.

    2. I want to add that often we need to interpret a diagram a little bit to reach the required minimum word count of 150 words.

  5. The given figure illustrates the process of power generation through a power station based on hydroelectric energy.
    Overall, it is clear that this process is cyclical and consists of five main steps: gathering water in the upper reservoir, directing it to the turbine, operating the generator, storing water in the lower reservoir, pumping water toward the upper reservoir.
    In the beginning, the intake of the dam is opened during the day; therefore, river water is stored behind the high-level dam is directed to the reversible turbine existed on the low; furthermore, the turbine’s blade is spun by water flow; hence, the connected generator can produce electricity and delivery it through the power line to the national grid. On the other hand, the remaining water is collected in the low-level container.
    Moving on to the process is done at night, turbine existed at the low side of the station beside the function of operating the generator, can pump water on the way to a high level; thus pumped water flows up and reaches the upper reservoir. Ultimately, water is accumulated behind the top repository and kept for tomorrow’s process.

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