This essay question is from Cambridge IELTS 16 Test 4 Writing Task 1.
The diagram below shows the process for recycling plastic bottles.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
How plastic bottles are recycled
The diagram illustrates how plastic bottles are recycled.
Overall, the recycling of plastic bottles is a man-made, cyclical process that consists of use, collection, sorting, crushing, cleaning, pelletizing, making new plastic products, and reuse.
After plastic bottles are used, they are discarded in recycling bins, waiting for trucks to transport them to a recycling plant. Once there, they are sorted and those that can be reused are compressed into blocks. The blocks are then broken down by a crushing machine into small pieces, which are subsequently cleaned to remove any residue.
The small clean pieces produced in the last stage are then poured into a machine where they are turned into pellets. The machine also heats and melts the pellets, which creates plastic raw material. Finally, the raw material is made into different plastic products, including pens, bottles, and reusable shopping bags. After these products are used, they go through the recycling process all over again.
How to Write the Overview
In your overview, if you say the recycling process is cyclical, you have to have a complete cycle that goes back to the start: use, collection, sorting, crushing, cleaning, pelletizing, making new plastic products, and reuse. The diagram hints at the step “use” by showing the user putting an empty bottle into the bin with no description. You have to mention “use” and “reuse”. Otherwise, you don’t have a complete cycle and you can’t say the process is cyclical.
How to Vary Your Language
Step 3 | Recycling center -> Recycling plant
Example They are then transported to a recycling plant by truck.
Step 5 | Crushing -> Breaking down/Grinding
Example The blocks are then broken down into/ground into small pieces by a crushing machine.
Step 5 | Washing -> Cleaning
Example They are subsequently cleaned to remove any residue.
Step 6 | Producing plastic pellets -> Be turned/transformed/converted into plastic pellets
Example The clean small pieces are then poured into a machine where they are turned into pellets.
Step 7 | Heating pellets -> Melting pellets
Step 7 | To form raw material -> To produce/create raw material
Example The pellets are melted in order to produce/create raw material for new products.