The graph below gives information from a 2008 report about consumption of energy in the USA since 1980 with projections until 2030.
Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant.
U.S. Energy Consumption by Fuel (1980-2030)
The line graph shows information about energy use in the USA since 1980 with projections to 2030. The information is from a report published in 2008.
Overall, the U.S. had depended most on petrol and oil, and least on nuclear, solar/wind and hydro power, as its sources of energy, and this was expected to continue into the future.
Petrol and oil had remained the greatest sources of energy, with an increase of 5 quadrillion units from 1980’s 35 quadrillion units. Growth was projected to continue to approximately 50 quadrillion units in 2030.
Energy uses from natural gas and coal had been similar, both fluctuating between 16 and 25 quadrillion units. However, consumption from coal was projected to have a greater increase and by 2030 the US was expected to consume about 30 quadrillion units of energy from coal versus 25 quadrillion units from natural gas.
Nuclear, solar/wind and hydro power each supplied only around 3 quadrillion units of energy in 1980. While the first two sources were predicted to rise slightly to roughly 7 and 5 quadrillion units respectively in 2030, the last was forecast to remain essentially unchanged.
When Did the Projections Start?
Many IELTS websites just took the year when they wrote the essay as the starting year of the projections, which is incorrect. The question clearly says that this is a 2008 report. This means that the report was published in 2008. Therefore, it is pretty safe to guess that the projections started in either 2008 or 2009. If the author published the report in January 2008, then the projections could well include the year 2008. However, it doesn’t matter exactly when the projections started because we don’t need to mention it in our essay. All we need to say is that energy consumption from coal was projected to increase, for example.
What Tenses to Use
The projections do not start in the year that you write your essay. Therefore, it is wrong to use the present perfect and the present simple.
✖️Overall, the U.S. has depended most on petrol and oil, and least on nuclear, solar/wind and hydro power, as its sources of energy, and this is expected to continue into the future.
✔️Overall, the U.S. had depended most on petrol and oil, and least on nuclear, solar/wind and hydro power, as its sources of energy, and this was expected to continue into the future.